Noscillations waves and optics pdf

Wave optics, also termed as physic optics is the branch of optics which deals with various phenomenon including diffraction, polarization of light, interference pattern in optics and solved problems, youngs double slit experiment etc. It begins with explaining ideas of superposition of harmonic oscillations leading to physics of travelling and standing waves. Wave optics deals with the study of various phenomenal behaviors of light like reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, polarization etc. Class 12 physics revision notes for chapter 10 wave optics. It is used in many areas of science, such as astronomy. Geometrical optics via electromagnetic wave quantization.

Its more advanced and a little less intuitive but designed to teach material you will see again and again, e. This is the field of geometrical optics, which we had discussed in the pr evious chapter. In these waves and optics notes pdf, you will study the concepts of waves and optics learnt at school from a more advanced perspective and goes on to build new concepts. A century later it was postulated that light could be a transverse wave. Waves and optics the knowledge and understanding for this unit is given below.

Wave optics propagation, interference and diffraction of waves axel kuhn, oxford 2016 paul ewarts lecture notes and problem sets. All the waves exhibit the phenomenon of diffraction. Course hero has thousands of waves and optics study resources to help you. Here v 1 and v 2 are the speed of light in media 1 and 2 with refractive index pp 12 and respectively. Good books about waves and optics physics stack exchange. Workshop tutorials for physics waves and optics activities. As with any subject, it is necessary to begin by developing a language with which to discuss the subject matter. When two waves of exactly same frequency coming from two coherent sources travels in a medium, in the same direction simultaneously then due to their superposition, at some points intensity of light is maximum while at some other points intensity is minimum. In geometric optics, the following statements are true for real and virtual images. Pedrotti cord waco, texas in module, basic geometrical optics, we made use of light rays to demonstrate reflection and refraction of light and the imaging of light with mirrors and lenses.

Covering the basics of wave propagation, reflection, refraction, anisotropic media, interference, diffraction, and coherence, this question and answer collection provides the opportunity to solve problems chosen by a mentor with decades. If you capture sunlight in a mirror or lens you can feel the heat where the sunlight is reflectedrefracted as a real image but you cannot feel the heat where the sunlight is. Geometrical optics via electromagnetic wave quantization john p. Introduction the energy that generated the wave that moves this surfer was transmitted to the water many miles away. Class 11 physics notes chapter 10 oscillations and waves pdf. While we cannot see these extremely rapid oscillations, their wave behavior is similar to that of water waves. Emphasis is on physical concepts and mathematical methods that are applicable to many areas of physics. Ncert solutions cbse notes class 6 class 7 class 8 class 9 class 10 class 11 class 12. Wave properties in general there are two types of waves. But the mass of water that originally received that energy did not move all those miles to the shore.

Electromagnetic waves are the only type of wave that do not require a medium at all. Two waves of equal amplitude that are in phase will add constructively to produce a net wave with an amplitude twice as large whereas such waves that are 180 out of phase will add. The light and matter series of introductory physics textbooks. Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. The optical radiation includes not only the visible range, but a broader range of invisible electromagnetic radiation that could be influenced in its radiation behavior in a similar way as the visible radiation, but needs often other transmitters or receivers for this radiation.

The wavelength of sound waves is comparable with the size of the obstacles whereas for light, the wavelength is much smaller than the dimensions of most of the obstacles. In this module, we shift the emphasis from light rays to light wavesfrom geometrical optics to physical optics. Professor ivo fridolin left and phd student jurgen arund in biofluids laboratory 20. Figure 28 illustrates a plane wave propagating along the x axis, which means that the wave fronts are parallel to the yz plane. The oscillations may be oriented in a single direction linear polarization. In the case of sound waves in air for example, the perturbed quantity is the pressure, which oscillates about the mean atmospheric pressure. To analyze various situations or phenomena associated with waves, optics and modern physics using basic principles. So n1decreases with increasing wavelength, giving a higher critical angle. Hernandez department of physics and astronomy, university of north carolina, chapel hill the basic laws of geometrical optics can be deduced from energymomentum conservation for electromagnetic waves, without other wave concepts. Periodic waves are characterized by crests highs and troughs lows, as shown in figure 23.

Since the wavelength of light is much smaller than the dimensions of most of the obstacles. More familiar types of waves are sound, or waves on a surface of water. Class 12 physics revision notes for chapter 10 wave optics free pdf download. While a mechanical wave such as a sound wave exists in a medium, waves of electromagnetic radiation including light can travel through vacuum, that is, without any medium. Physical optics lecture notes pdf 44p download book.

In both cases, there is a perturbation with a periodic spatial pattern which propagates, or travels in space. Physical optics lecture notes pdf 44p this note covers the following topics. But when light waves pass around small objects, such as a 100diameter human hair, or through small openings, such as a 50 pinhole, ray optics cannot account for the light patterns produced on a screen beyond these objects. This course is intended to introduce the student to a broad range of physical phenomena involving waves mechanical waves, sound waves, and electromagnetic waves, geometrical and physical optics, matter waves, and quantum physics. Note that the observed laws of geometric optics follow from the assumption that light is a wave. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as xrays, microwaves, and radio waves. Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Advanced placement physics waves and optics energy. Wave optics, also referred to as physical optics, is the branch of optics that enables important phenomena such as interference, diffraction, and polarization to be understood. Phys231 waves and optics michaelmas term 2009 volker perlick, v. Waves and optics regular waves and optics worksheets and solutions wr1b. Vibrations, waves, and optics phys 2300 fall 2012 overview this course deals with the physics of vibrations and waves, including the harmonic oscillator, the wave equation, wave propagation, and a little optics. Transverse standing waves normal modes of a beaded string normal modes of a uniform. Pdf version available here or on the course website.

Huygens mentioned that light travels in the form of waves. Find waves and optics course notes, answered questions, and waves and optics tutors 247. This note is written on the basis of a book oscillations and waves in japanese 1 written by prof. Optics benjamin crowell book 5 in the light and matter series of introductory physics textbooks optics. Waves and optics activities the university of sydney. Choose your answers to the questions and click next to see the next set of questions. Based on the wave theory, poisson, aragoand fresnel predicted that there should be a bright spot at the center of a circular shadow. Optics notes topics in these notes are wave properties polarization focal lengths geometrical optics i. With 272 selected problems and answers, this study aid is a powerful supplement to the study of wave optics.

But we had learnt all waves have common characteristic properties such as. More simply, it uses the interference these waves experience to make accurate measurements of the waves. Class 11 physics notes chapter 10 oscillations and waves pdf download free. You can skip questions if you would like and come back to them. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic. Only wave optics leads to the correct interpretation of such patterns. Newton rejected the wave theory for good reason, but assumed the waves would be longitudinal like sound. For simple harmonic motion the period is independent of amplitude, i.

Light is that range of electromagnetic energy that is visible to the human eye, the visible colors. In this case, the wave function depends only on x and t and has the form ux, t asinkx. Waves must travel in a medium with one important exception. Charting pendulum motion the line drawn is sinusoidal, and can be described by the equation x acos. Im looking for a good book about waves and optics, only. Describe a method of measuring the speed of sound in air, using the relationship between distance, time and speed. It is used in many areas of science, such as astronomy, engineering, oceanography, physics, and fiber optics. State that radio and television signals are transmitted through air at 300 million ms and. A major idea is the principle of superposition, as applied to waves overlapping in space and time, which leads to interference effects. Wave theory of light by huygens, fresnel, young, etc in geometric optics we learnt light is a stream of straightgoing particles newton proposed that first then we learnt light is a form of em wave. Oscillations, waves and optics cavendish astrophysics. You can skip questions if you would like and come back to.

If you would rather have copies of the notes to print out, you may find the pdf or. It is an eminent branch which assumes great importance as a large number of questions in various. A upright, magnified and real b upright, the same size and virtual c inverted, demagnified and real d inverted, magnified and virtual. Refractive index varies with wavelength in water and is greater for shorter wavelengths, ie at the blue end of the spectrum. Because light is a wave, the superposition principle is valid to determine the constructive and destructive interferences for light waves. Wavefront of a wave, at any instant, is defined as the locus of all the particles in the medium which are being disturbed at the same instant of time and are in the same phase of vibration. Longitudal waves are those in which the displacement of the mediumor eld is in the direction of the wave. This course covers harmonic motion, waves in continua, electromagnetic waves, and physical optics. Light energy is conveyed through waves wave behavior, e.

Indeed, the branch of optics in which one completely neglects the finiteness of the wavelength is called geometrical optics and a ray is defined as the path of energy propagation in the limit of wavelength tending to zero. Physics study guideoptics wikibooks, open books for an. Optics, the branch which is the study of light phenomena is divided into tworay optics and wave optics. The ideas covered in this course form a fundamental basis for understanding an enormous range of physical phenomena and. Refraction and reflection of plane waves using huygens principle. The course also provides an in depth understanding of wave phenomena of light, namely, interference and diffraction with emphasis on practical applications of the same. Interference in light waves is not easy to observe because the wavelengths are so short. Optics notes massachusetts institute of technology. In this case it is electromagnetic waves that are the subject of interest and electromagnetic waves have several properties of interest in common with other waves. The simple harmonic motion, the damped harmonic motion, forced oscillations and resonance. When an object is placed in front of a plane mirror the image is.

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