The white rulers of south africa have tried to deal with this dilemma at two levels. The future of mining in africa the future of mining in africa the rapid advance of mining digitalisation, coupled with regulatory changes, will change the way that african mines operate and require careful consideration of the impact of those changes to mining stakeholders. Gold mining in south africa has a large impact on the environment, the economy and social structure in south africa. Impacts of mining on water resources in south africa. By the time that gold was discovered, african kingdoms had lost their independence.
The 2008 financial crisis had a big impact on international minerals prices and south africa. What was the impact of mineral revolution in south africa. South africa was long infamous for its entrenched system of racial discrimination. Widespread rural poverty in africa and the success of asias green revolution suggest that agriculture is a key sector for african development. The year 1870 was a turning point in south africa historical context as it. The evolution of occupational structures in south africa 18751911. The political economy of the south african revolution. It presaged the emergence of the modern south african industrial state.
The infant state owed its conception to centralizing and modernizing forces generated by mineral discoveries, and its character was shaped by eight years of. Diamonds were initially identified in 1867 in an area adjoining the confluence of the vaal and the orange rivers, just north of the cape colony, although it was not until 1869 to 1870 that finds were sufficient to attract a rush of several thousand fortune. Diamond mining in south africa has a large impact on the economy and it is currently sustainable and positive. According to the oxford dictionary 2000 define mineral revolution as the major economic advance of the late nineteenth century after discovery of first diamonds and then gold transformed the mineral revolution in south africa a period of mineral revolution profoundly mark them history of south africa which resulted due to the presence of natural resources like gold, silver, diamond. Who was in control of the land known as the richest known diamondbearing territory in the world during the mineral revolution. Largescale and profitable mining started with the discovery of a diamond on the banks of the orange river in 1867 by erasmus jacobs and the subsequent discovery and exploitation of the kimberley pipes a few years later. Critical perspectives on southern africa, number 8182, 20, pp. An industrial revolution for south africa financial times. The coronavirus covid19 has resulted in mass production shutdowns and supply chain disruptions due to port closures in china, causing global ripple effects across all economic sectors in a rare twin supplydemand shock. Iain smith published in history today volume 38 issue 2 february 1988 during the past twentyfive years, the study of south african history has undergone a transformation which, in historiographical terms, represents a revolution.
There has been a large impact on the south african economy by the mineral revolution of diamonds. Although it has benefited many native migrant workers by. The mineral revolution is a term used by historians to refer to the rapid industrialisation and economic changes which occurred in south africa. The digital revolution the velocity of change sweeping.
The mineral revolution brought about great changes for south africans. Moreover bernstein 1989 defines mineral revolution as rapid industrialization and economic changes which occurred in south africa from 1870s on wards. This transformation is known to historians as the mineral revolution. What are the effects of mineral revolution in south africa. The mineral revolution had a major impact on political developments in south africa. Under south africas national development plan ndp, the vision 2030 awards. A history of south african capitalism in national and global perspective keith hart, vishnu padayachee transformation. Pdf impacts of mining on water resources in south africa. People who work in the mines have poor health and safety systems and there are some deaths caused by this. The mineral revolution was largely driven by the need to create permanent workforce to work in themining industry andsouth africa transformed from a patch work of agrarian states to a unified. A perspective on the south african mining industry in the. South africa south africa reconstruction, union, and segregation 190229. Mining in south africa was once the main driving force behind the history and development of africas most advanced and richest economy.
By their references to the early phases of colonization through to the great trek and its after. The mineral discoveries had a major impact on the subcontinent as a whole. Everywhere one looks today the organic crisis of capitalism is having a devastating impact on the lives of millions of working people. Impact of mineral revolution in south africa essay. The future of mining in africa navigating a revolution. On the other hand, the gap between rich and poor is wider than its was under apartheid.
To order copies of minerals and africas development. This fuelled south africas first major mineral rush, the consequent industrialised mineral exploitation of these deposits, and a struggle over who would control the diamond fields the. The impact of the mineral revolution, 18701936 in concluding chapter three the opinion was given that the development of a particular black perception of south african history was directly linked to the writers current situation. It was mineral revolution that transformed south africa from subsistence economy to commercial and industrial society. The revolution in south african historiography history today. While gold was south africas primary mineral resource, it was by no means.
Before the revolution, most south africans lived off the land in subsistence societies. The discovery of the witwatersrand goldfields in 1886 was a turning point in the history of south africa. Unanswered questions what is the particular type of processor model and operating system on which a computer is based called. Arnold plant speaks of the warping effect on development of rigid mono polistic institutions under. The mining industry in south africa is one of the largest in the world. South africa reconstruction, union, and segregation. The mineral revolution is a term used by historians to refer to the rapid industrialisation and. Why was the mineral revolution and turning point in south african history. But it is also unique in the extent to which urbanization, industrialization, and rural transformation have been molded by. Mineral resources made south africa a place of interest to the international community. The environmental impact of gold mining on the environment includes water, air and noise pollution.
However, in response to recent skepticism, this paper examines whether the conventional wisdom about agricul. The mineral revolution in south africa started with the discovery of diamonds in kimberley in 1867, and intensified with the discovery of deeplevel gold on the witwatersrand in 1886. Use the link below to share a fulltext version of this article with your friends and colleagues. History mineral revolution in sa arts and humanities. Focus your attention on the economy domestic and foreign, labor, colonialism, and emerging racial policy. Grade 8 topic 2 the mineral revolution in south africa south. With south africa having just reported its first cases of covid19, africa is beginning to feel its full impact and plans to control and manage the humanitarian. The gold mining industry in south africa essay 1011. Smith looks at the changes in the study of south africas past. In political terms, the mineral revolution had a significant impact on diplomacy. The central question of african rebellions against colonial rule was the new relationship. Doc the mineral revolution in south afraca chilufya.
South africa came out of the war reasonably well, the gold price was low and conditions for labour were poor, strikes broke out. During the goldmining revolution, patterns of land and labour were. The migrant labour practice in south africa played an important role in the countrys development and economy. The 19 th c was a period of revolutionary change in south africa due to mineral revolution. Aware of the fact that africa is the continent most affected by the impact of climate change, south africa was committed to ensure that. Initially the mineral revolution in south africa was a dynamic process. For instance kimberly, south africa, was the first place in the northern hemisphere to install street lighting in the entire town. What do you consider to be the most enduring impact of the mineral discovery. The mineral revolution in south africa started with the discovery of. A pervasive system of migrant labor played a fundamental part in shaping the past and present of south africas economy and society and has left indelible marks on the wider region. A century of migrant labour in the gold mines of south africa. It caused population movement in all race groups from rural to urban areas in search of work. Craft an essay discussing the impact of the south african mineral revolution. On the one hand, nearly 8 million people of working age are unemployed in the country.
South african society is riddled with contradictions. Cape colony required armies of workers for the mines and support industries, and to secure a regular flow of workers to the mines, citation needed dubious discuss the colonial government began a series of annexations of neighbouring african states, such as basutoland, bechuanaland, and pediland. South african economic development in the light of the new. First, the nationalist party that has ruled south africa since 1948, has waged an ideological war by manufacturing a version of past and present south africa, which they have systematically attempted to impose. In political terms, the mineral revolution had a significant impact on diplomacy and military affairs. The mineral revolution has changed social impacts and interactions, as before the diamonds south africa had no major source of mineral income or trade. Mineral revolution in south africa infrastructure of southafrica.
Before south africas vast mineral wealth was discovered in the late nineteenth century, there was a general belief that. Diamonds were initially identified in 1867 in an area adjoining the. The mineral revolution was largely driven by the need to create a permanent workforce to work in the mining industry, and saw south africa transformed from a patchwork of agrarian states to a unified, industrial nation. Encarta 2009 defines a mineral as a naturally occurring substance that is mined or extracted from the ground. The mineral discoveries had a radical impact on every sphere of society. It began with the discovery of diamonds in the region of modern kimberly in the period 186971. One social impact of diamond mining in south africa is poor safety. It began the transformation of sa from an agrarian country that was fragmented into a unified industrial nation. Grade 8 topic 2 the mineral revolution in south africa. Conservation of the natural environment and economic. The interior of south africa became so important to the colonialists that the balance of power was tipped firmly in favor of the whites and the african states were eclipsed. The dutch and the british fought over control of south africas diamond and gold resources. Would the mineral revolution have made such a big impact such as it did in south africa, if it occurred in any other country. The impacts of the south african mineral revolution.388 697 10 630 814 1358 607 739 38 1016 827 1590 636 226 1097 1548 93 1611 369 298 210 13 1459 777 1468 514 1277 524 646 403 1339 1133 716 201 615